Black Ribbon Day in the 1980’s

Black Ribbon Day was founded Canada in the 1980’s by a group of Central and Eastern European community activists, led by Markus Hess and by the late 1980’s became an internationally recognized movement. Interest in the movement waned after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. A book was written in 2016 about the movement in the 1980’s by the Canadian Polish Research Institute.